Bibliography: Late Antiquity

The following bibliography on stemmata, covering only their Antique origins, includes most of the books and articles quoted on this website, but only a few of them comment directly on stemmata design per se, and almost none has much to say about the connection of stemmata to the history of paragraphy.

A later list will deal with the medieval and early modern period. This is, as far as I know, the only bibliography with a focus on infographic technique in the ancient world. For a bibliography on tabulation in ancient books, see Grafton/Williams below, which also serves as an overview of recent research into Late Antique book design. I do not know of a modern bibliography on ancient paragraphy, but a search of Roger Pearse's blog for the tag "chapter titles" leads to many useful references.

The two vital texts to read about stemmata are Klapisch-Zuber's L'ombre and Zaluska's Les feuillets liminaires, both in French. Two articles in German predate these. That by Wirth is relatively brief in its discussion of stemmata, but offers many wise comments. That by Melville has a medievalist bias and in my view unfairly excludes the Late Antique contribution to the invention of all the arbor diagrams.

Murdoch's Album of Science is the only exploration of early infographic technology to have appeared in English, other than Gorman's study of the stemmata in the work of Cassiodorus, Evans' very brief 1980 survey and Watson's now obsolete suggestion that the Tree of Jesse image somehow influenced the stemma diagram.[*]

The editions in the first section on this page do not all adequately reproduce the layout of the early writers. While the handwriting of manuscripts— their micro-typography so to speak— is generally well described in most catalogues and reports, text-layout features— apart from column heights and widths— are often neglected in scholarly descriptions.

This bibliography does not include manuscripts, since these are described in tabular fashion on other pages. Facsimile books that reproduce manuscripts are only listed below if they discuss the stemmata.

Contributions are welcome. The entire bibliography can, I am told, be captured from the page using the bibliographic software Zotero. Help yourself to this book-list and enhance and re-publish it but please acknowledge me as the author of the comments. (The rest of the material on this website is not free to copy.)

Editions of Early Stemmata

Boethius, and Samuel Brandt. Anicii Manlii Severini Boethii In Isagogen Porphyrii Commenta. Vol. 48. Corpus Scriptorum Ecclesiasticorum Latinorum. Vienna: Tempsky, 1906. A standard modern edition of the Latin text where the arbor porphyriana has been adapted to a new arrangement of the editor Brandt’s invention.  

Boethius. ‘Commentarii In Porphyrium A Se Translatum’. In Manlii Severini Boetii opera omnia, edited by Jacques-Paul Migne. Vol. tomus posterior. Patrologia Latina 64. Paris: Migne, 1847. Online. Here the arbor porphyriana is printed from an old gravure that fairly faithfully reproduces the manuscript form.  

Cassiodorus, and Wolfgang B�rsgens. Institutiones Divinarum et Saecularium Litterarum = Einf�hrung in die geistlichen und weltlichen Wissenschaften. Freiburg-im-Breisgau [Germany]: Herder, 2003. A current German translation of the Institutions modelled closely on the Mynors edition.  

Cassiodorus, and James W. Halporn. Institutions of Divine and Secular Learning. Liverpool: University Press, 1992. A current English translation.  

Cassiodorus, and Leslie Webber Jones. An Introduction to Divine and Human Readings. New York: Columbia University Press, 1946. An older English translation of the Institutions.  

Cassiodorus, and R.A.B. Mynors. Cassiodori Senatoris Institutiones. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1961. The standard text-critical edition of the Institutions. Many of the stemmata have unfortunately been collapsed into linear text, a decision for which Mynors has been criticized by Gorman, me and others.  

Fischer, Bonifatius, ed. ‘Genesis: Nachtr�ge’. In Genesis. Vetus Latina: die Reste der altlateinischen Bibel 2. Freiburg-im-Breisgau [Germany]: Herder, 1951. Critical, text-only edition of the first half of the Great Stemma based on just four manuscripts. The Great Stemma's layout is not even mentioned let alone discussed, and the non-scriptural material is omitted.  

Isidore, and Stephen A. Barney. Etymologies of Isidore of Seville. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2006. The current English version of the Etymologies, containing a prudent translation of the entry for ‘stemma’.  

Isidore, and Wallace Martin Lindsay. Etymologiarvm sive originvm libri XX. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1911. Online. The standard text-critical edition of the Etymologies in the original Latin. Isidore’s is the sole Antique definition of the word ‘stemma’.  

Mommsen, Theodor, ed. ‘[Liber Genealogus:] Additamentum II [to the] Chronographus anni CCCLIIII’. In Chronicorum minororum saec. IV. V. VI. VII. Vol. 1. Monumenta Germaniae Historica (MGH), Auctores Antiquissimi (AA) 9. Berlin: Weidmann, 1892. Online. The standard edition of the Liber Genealogus. For the purpose of comparison with the Great Stemma, it is advisable to use the G recension only: a revised and newly formatted edition of the G text has been published here on  

Pseudo-Iulianus, and Jos� Carlos Mart�n-Iglesias. “Ordo Annorum Mundi.” In Iulianus Toletanus, Felix Toletanus, Iulianus Toletanus (Ps.): Opera II, edited by Jos� Carlos Mart�n-Iglesias and V. Yarza Urquiola. Corpus Christianorum Series Latina 115A. Turnhout: Brepols, 2014. Publisher. Editio maior of an anonymous Late Antique text which was apparently specifically written to elucidate the Great Stemma to readers.

About Stemmata

Ayuso Marazuela, Te�filo. Introducci�n general y edici�n cr�tica de los elementos extrab�blicos. Textos y estudios. Madrid: Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cient�ficas, Inst. Francisco Suarez, 1962. Is this a later volume summarizing Ayuso’s articles, or merely a re-issue of them?  

———. ‘La Biblia de Calahorra. Un importante codice desconocido’. Estudios Biblicos 2 (1942): 241–271. Discusses the Great Stemma only briefly in the course of a description of one of the manuscripts containing it.  

———. ‘La B�blia Visig�tica de San Is�doro de Le�n’. Estudios B�blicos 19-20 (61 1960): 5–24, 167–200, 271–309; 5–43, 243–259, 359–406. A second look at old Spanish bibles. Adds only very little to Ayuso’s observations about the genealogical tables he had previously published in 1943.  

———. ‘Los elementos extrab�blicos de la Vulgata’. Estudios B�blicos 2 (1943): 133–187. His major study of Early Christian remnant texts, including the Great Stemma, in old Spanish bibles.  

Badel, Christophe. La noblesse de l’Empire romain: les masques et la vertu. Seyssel: Champ Vallon, 2005. Online. Contains a useful discussion from page 106 of the likely meaning of ‘stemma’ in the patrician household, updating the current position. Looks at patrician Roman ways of showing off genealogy.  

Beatus of Li�bana, and Roger Gryson. Tractatus de Apocalipsin. Corpus Christianorum Series Latina 107C. Turnhout: Brepols, 2012. Publisher. A new edition of the text of the Apocalypse Commentary of Beatus. Gryson's introduction emphasizes the previously overlooked distinction between the textual and art-historical evolutions of the Commentary, and thus only alludes to the genealogical table, which is a decorative feature found at the front of some but not all Beatus manuscripts.  

Bretin-Chabrol, Marine. L’arbre et la Lign�e: M�taphores V�g�tales de la Filiation et de l’Alliance en Latin Classique. Grenoble: Millon, 2012.

Carlos Villamar�n, Helena de. ‘El C�dice de Roda (Madrid, BRAH 78) como compilaci�n de voluntad historiogr�fica’. Edad Media: revista de historia 12 (2011): 119–142. Online. Argues that the Great Stemma is the ‘ideological kernel’ of the Codex of Roda, which is a ‘textual ensemble’ with ‘typological meaning’. Excludes any discussion of the origin or previous transmission of the text, considering only the intentions of the monastic editor and why he might have chosen to include the Great Stemma in this codex.  

Chazelle, Celia. ‘The three chapters controversy and the biblical diagrams of Cassiodorus’s codex grandior and Institutions’. In The crisis of the Oikoumene: the Three Chapters and the failed quest for unity in the sixth-century Mediterranean, edited by Catherine Cubitt and Celia Chazelle. Turnhout: Brepols, 2007. A prescient study of Cassiodorus’s stemmatic diagrams as transmitted by the Institutions manuscripts and bibles. She argues that the bunch-of-grapes outline of the clipei is Cassiodorus’s own idea.  

Esmeijer, Anna Catharina. Divina Quaternitas: a preliminary study in the method and application of visual exegesis. Translated with the assistance of D.A.S. Reid. Assen: Van Gorcum, 1978. Analyses the mental world of medieval religious diagrams. Originally in Dutch. Profound and definitely not a work of the mainstream.  

Evans, Michael W. 'The Geometry of the Mind.' Architectural Association Quarterly 12, no. 4 (1980). Re-issued online by Deborah Taylor-Pearce with the illustrations. A short survey of all the medieval diagram types, with a useful brief summary of what is to be encountered in the category stemmata.  

Fischer, Bonifatius. ‘Algunas observaciones sobre el �Codex Gothicus� de la Real Colegiata de San Isidoro en Le�n’. Archivos leoneses: revista de estudios y documentaci�n de los reinos hispano-occidentales XV (1961): 5–47. A brief but important study of the Great Stemma found in several Spanish bibles. Fischer differentiates, wrongly in my view, between two recensions of it whch he names Lambda and Delta.  

———. ‘Bibelausgaben des fr�hen Mittelalters’. In La Bibbia nell’alto medioevo. Rist. anastatica. Settimane di studio del Centro Italiano di Studi sull’Alto Medioevo , ISSN 0528-5666. Spoleto [Italy]: Presso la Sede del Centro, 1963. Attacks the theories of Ayuso Marazuela, q.v.  

———. ‘Zur �berlieferung altlateinischer Bibeltexte im Mittelalter’. Nederlands archief voor kerkgeschiedenis 56, no. 1 (1975): 19. Online. Offers context on preservation of the Vetus Latina in documents such as the Great Stemma.  

Gorman, Michael. ‘The diagrams in the oldest manuscript of Cassiodor’s Institutiones’. Revue b�n�dictine, no. 110 (2000): 27–41. Rediscovers the stemmatic diagrams as a central element in Cassiodorus’s educational method.  

Graham, Stacey. “The Transmission of North African Texts to Europe in Late Antiquity.” In Medieval Manuscripts, Their Makers and Users, 151–67. Turnhout: Brepols, 2011. Publisher. Expands the Rouse/McNelis hypothesis (below) that a North African Compendium was exported to Spain, but overlooks the evidence that the Great Stemma ("unusual, medallion-shaped genealogical tables") is the prior work.

Kellner, Beate. Ursprung und Kontinuit�t: Studien zum genealogischen Wissen im Mittelalter. Paderborn: Wilhelm Fink, 2004. Discusses the Great Stemma pp 50-53 from a semiotics perspective, arriving at several off-target conclusions. The analysis is based solely on the Saint-Sever manuscript in Paris, meaning a rather non-representative sample of the available data was used.

Klapisch-Zuber, Christiane. L’arbre des familles. Paris: Éd. de La Martinière, 2003. Book of color reproductions of medieval and Renaissance stemmatic illuminations and paintings, with a bias to the ornate and political type rather than to simple diagrams. The discussion is limited to the captions. Can be read alongside Klapisch-Zuber’s book L'Ombre, q.v.  

———. L’ombre des anc�tres. Paris: Fayard, 2000. The principal current scholarly book on stemmatic diagrams, presenting evidence that the arborescent evolution of the diagrams is a medieval invention. Includes a chapter on the Great Stemma in Spain, but avoids exploration of its prior history during Late Antiquity.  

Klein, Peter K. Beatus de Li�bana, Codex Urgellensis: comentario a la edici�n facs�mil. Madrid: Testimonio, 2002. Affirms a Visigothic route from the Liber Genealogus to the medieval manuscripts, writing: Die Genealogischen Tabellen d�rften also wohl noch auf Vorbilder aus dem westgotischen Bibel-Illustrationen zur�ckgehen, ihr Alter bleibt weiterhin offen (32).  

———. Der ältere Beatus-Kodex Vitr. 14-1 der Biblioteca Nacional zu Madrid. Hildesheim [u.a.]: Olms, 1976. One of Klein’s earlier commentaries, including description of the Great Stemma.  

K�llner, Herbert. ‘Zur Datierung der Bibel von Floreffe: Bibelhandschriften als Geschichtsb�cher?’ In Rhein und Maas. Kunst und Kultur, 800-1400, II:361–376. Berichte, Beitr�ge und Forschungen. Cologne, 1973. An early study of the School or Lesser Stemma also found in the Burgos Bible.  

Mart�n, Jos� Carlos, and Jacques Elfassi. ‘Iulianus Toletanus ep.’ In La trasmissione dei testi latini del Medioevo. Mediaeval Latin Texts and their Transmission, edited by P Chiesa and L Castaldi, 373–431. Te.Tra 3. Florence: Sismel-Edizioni del Galluzzo, 2008. Important brief survey of the works of Julian, whose name is attached to some manuscripts of the Ordo Annorum Mundi, which in its turn is sometimes a component of the Great Stemma. Mart�n is planning an edition of the OAM which will rule out any connection with Julian.  

Melville, Gert. ‘Geschichte in graphischer Gestalt. Beobachtungen zu einer sp�tmittelalterlichen Darstellungsweise’. In Geschichtsschreibung und Geschichtesbewusstsein im sp�ten Mittelalter, edited by Hans Patze, 57–154. Vortr�ge und Forschungen / Konstanzer Arbeitskreis f�r Mittelalterliche Geschichte 31. Sigmaringen [Germany]: Thorbecke, 1987. Reviews a wide range of scientific and conceptual diagrams in medieval use.  

Miranda Garc�a, Carlos. “Mnemonics and Pedagogy in the Compendium Historiae in Genealogia Christi by Peter of Poitiers.” In Genealogia Christi, edited by Maria Alg�s, translated by Anne Barton de Mayer, 29–89. Barcelona: Moleiro, 2000. Compares the Great Stemma with the medieval Compendium of Peter of Poitiers, but brings no new insights on their diagrammatic techniques. Miranda did not read Zaluska's later articles.  

Murdoch, John E. Album of Science: Antiquity and the Middle Ages. New York: Scribner, 1984. Contains reproductions, predominantly in black and white, of many medieval stemma diagrams together with long captions discussing them.  

Neuss, Wilhelm. Die Apokalypse des Hl. Johannes in der altspanischen und altchristlichen Bibel-Illustration: das Problem der Beatus-Handschriften. M�nster [Germany]: Aschendorf, 1931. At pp 119-125 the first major study of the Great Stemma, including a transcription of the Adam section only of the Alpha and Beta recensions and black and white reproductions. Neuss was not aware of the diagram’s Late Antique origins.  

Orofino, Giulia. ‘Da Montecassino a Nonantola: La tradizione illustrativa delle Institutiones di Cassiodoro’. In Il monachesimo italiano dall’et� longobarda all’et� ottoniana (secc. VIII-X), Convegno, Nonantola, 9-13 September 2003, n.d. Online. A significant survey of the Cassiodorus diagrams, including information on their location.  

Piggin, Jean-Baptiste. ‘The Great Stemma’, n.d. Book currently in preparation.

———. ‘The Great Stemma: a Late Antique Diagrammatic Chronicle of Pre-Christian Time’. Studia Patristica 54, 2013.  

Revilla, Mariano. ‘El c�dice ovetense de los Evangelios y la Biblia de Valvanera’. Ciudad de Dios 117 (1919): 393–399; 118 (1919) 23–28 (principal quote at 25); 120 (1920) 48–55 y 190–210. Online. The article which recounts the role of the notary Justus in the history of the Great Stemma. Republished separately as: Fragmenta Biblica Scurialensia, El Escorial, 1920.  

Rouse, Richard, and Charles McNelis. ‘North African literary activity: A Cyprian fragment, the stichometric lists and a Donatist compendium’. Revue d’histoire des textes 30 (2000): 189–238. Online. A valuable and careful survey of the compendium in which the Liber Genealogus has been embedded during its transmission.  

Ruggiero, Iolanda. “Gli stemmata cognationum: Pauli Sententiae ed Etymologiae.” In Ravenna capitale. Uno sguardo ad occidente. Romani e Goti, Isidoro di Siviglia, edited by Gisella Bassanelli Sommariva and Simona Tarozzi, 101–16. Santarcangelo di Romagna: Maggioli Editore, 2012. Online. Explores Isidore's understanding of the word stemma.

Schadt, Hermann. Die Darstellungen der Arbores Consanguinitatis und der Arbores Affinitatis: Bildschemata in juristischen Handschriften. T�bingen [Germany]: Wasmuth, 1982. A survey of matrices (which Schadt sometimes calls stemmata). Important in understanding Isidore’s use of such matrices to illustrate kinship terminology.  

Suarez Gonzalez, A. ‘La Biblia de Calahorra. Notas sobre sus caracteres externos’. Berceo 134 (1998): 75–104. Article with a careful physical description of a bible containing the Great Stemma.  

Voelkle, William M, and John Williams, eds. Beato de Liébana San Miguel de Escalada: Manuscrito 644 de la Pierpont Morgan Library de Nueva York. Madrid: Club Internacional del Libro, 2005. Discussion, with facsimile, of one of the manuscripts of the Great Stemma in New York.  

Watson, Arthur. The Early Iconography of the Tree of Jesse. London: Oxford University Press, H. Milford, 1934. Touches on stemmatic diagrams in its exploration of a medieval art motif. Watson mentions the Great Stemma type, noting (p. 43) that ‘The genealogies in the Beatus Ms. are irregular in formation.’ The book is too light on analysis of the pre-Tree-of-Jesse art, and has been widely misunderstood as arguing that stemmatic pictures derive from the Tree of Jesse.  

Williams, John. ‘A Castilian Tradition of Bible Illustration: the Romanesque Bible from San Mill�n’. Journal of the Warburg and Courtauld Institutes XXVIII (1965): 66–85. Online. Only discusses the Great Stemma (the ‘Genealogical Tables’) briefly, implying that it, like the evangelist images in the bible and Beatus manuscripts, had originated in bible illustration and then moved to the Beatus Commentary.  

———. ‘A Model for the Leon Bibles’. Madrider� Mitteilungen VIII (1967): 281–286. Useful for its discussion of the lost bible of Ona (943), which must have included the Beta recension of the Great Stemma.  

———. ‘The Beatus Commentaries and Spanish Bible Illustration’. In Actas del simposio para el estudio de los c�dices del ‘Comentario al Apocalipsis’ de Beato de Li�bana, 2:201–219. Madrid: Joyas Bibliogr�f, 1980. This is the article where Williams develops his ensemble theory and differs with Neuss over how the ensemble came to be attached to the Beatus Commentary on the Apocalypse.  

———. ‘Introduction and Commentary’. In A Spanish Apocalypse: the Morgan Beatus Manuscript, edited by John Williams and Barbara A. Shailor. New York: G. Braziller in association with the Pierpont Morgan Library, 1991. Describes the oldest manuscript containing the Great Stemma.  

———. The Illustrated Beatus: A Corpus of the Illustrations of the Commentary on the Apocalypse. 5 vols. London: Harvey Miller, 1994. A vital survey of all of the Beatus manuscripts which preserve the Great Stemma. With standardized data on each manuscript and illustrations.  

———. ‘The Bible in Spain’. In Imaging the Early Medieval Bible, edited by John Williams, 179–218. University Park: Pennsylvania State Univ. Press, 1999. Here Williams reverses his view that the Great Stemma is part of a lost tradition of pre-10th-century Spanish bible illustration, writing, ‘The Le�n bibles represent ad hoc arrangements, prompted by Carolingian examples.’ He gives up the idea that the model for the tripartite ensemble (the Stemma, the evangelist portraits and the Daniel illustration) pre-dates the Arab invasion of Iberia and in effect holds it to have been assembled in Spain at an early medieval date. He thus forsakes the issue of how the Great Stemma evolved between 427 and 940.  

———. ‘Maius y la revoluci�n pict�rica del Beato’. In Seis estudios sobre Beatos medievales, edited by M P�rez, 17–34. Le�n, 2010. Online. One of the most recent articles by Williams, possibly touching on the Great Stemma versions in the Beatus manuscripts. Not yet seen.  

Williams, John, Joaqu�n Gonz�lez Echegaray, Manuel S�nchez Mariana, Joaqu�n Yarza, Roberto Moleiro Adolfo, and Biblioteca Nacional (Spain). ‘Beatus de Fernado I y Sancha’. In Beato de Fernando I y Sancha. Barcelona: M. Moleiro Editor, 2006. Facsimile of the Facundus Beatus with commentary. This was largely modelled on the Morgan Beatus, but dates from 100 years later.  

Wirth, Karl-August. ‘Von mittelalterlichen Bildern und Lehrfiguren im Dienste der Schule und des Unterrichts’. In Studien zum st�dischen Bildungswesen des sp�ten Mittelalters und der fr�hen Neuzeit, edited by Bernd Moeller, Hans Patze, and Karl Stackmann, 256–370. Abhandlungen der Akademie der Wissenschaften in G�ttingen: Philologisch-Historische Klasse; Folge 3 137. G�ttingen [Germany]: Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, 1983. Important survey of medieval diagrams - the stemma, rota, and so on - and their classical roots. Establishes ‘stemma’ as the term of choice.  

Wittkower, Rudolph. ‘Miraculous Birds’. Journal of the Warburg Institute 1, no. 3 (1938): 253–257. Online. Examines the Bird and Serpent image found alongside many copies of the Great Stemma.  

Worm, Andrea. ‘Diagrammatic Chronicles’. Edited by Raymond Graeme Dunphy. The Encyclopedia of the Medieval Chronicle. Leiden: Brill, 2010. Studies the medieval diagrammatic chronicles. These may have been influenced by the Great Stemma.

Zaluska, Yolanta. ‘Entre texte et image: les stemmata bibliques au Sud et au Nord des Pyr�n�es’. Bulletin de la Societ� nationale des antiquaires de France (1986): 142–152. Surveys the Lesser Stemma group, which Zaluska considered a sixth recension of the Great Stemma.  

———. ‘Le Beatus de Saint-Sever � travers sa composition mat�rielle et ses g�n�alogies bibliques’. In Saint-Sever, mill�naire de l’abbaye: colloque international, 25, 26 et 27 mai 1985, edited by Jean Cabanot, 279–292. Mont-de-Marsan [France]: Comit� d’�tudes sur l’histoire et l’art de la Gascogne, 1986. An article in which Zaluska mentions the Great Stemma only briefly, with her chief addition being a note on the recension in Florence which she had previously left out of account.  

———. ‘Les feuillets liminaires’. In El Beato de Saint-Sever, ms. lat. 8878 de la Biblioth�que nationale de Paris, edited by Xavier Barral i Altet. Madrid [Spain]: Ed�lan, 1984. The definitive 20th century study of the Great Stemma, providing a detailed page-by-page account.  

About the Historical Context

Amann, Emile. Le Prot�vangile de Jacques et ses remaniements latins. Paris: Letouzey, 1910. A principal survey of the diffusion of the Protevangelium in the Latin-speaking world, now supplemented by my own page on this website.  

Andrei, Osvalda. ‘Dalle Chronographiai di Giulio Africano alla Synagoge di “Ippolito”. Un dibattito sulla scrittura cristiana del tempo.’ In Julius Africanus und die christliche Weltchronistik, edited by Martin Wallraff. Vol. 157. De Gruyter, 2006. Online. Contends that Hippolytus, author of a Commentary on Daniel and an Easter computation, wrote the Chronicon (termed the Synagoge here) as a riposte in 235 to the chronography of Julius Africanus written 14 years earlier. This is one of the most recent ‘deep’ investigations of Hippolytus and therefore potentially helpful as a guide to the environment in which the chronography in the Great Stemma arose.  

Bannister, H. M. ‘The Introduction of the Cultus of St. Anne into the West’. English Historical Review (1903). Briefly mentions the lack of investigation of early veneration of Joachim and Anne in the West. Both are principally known from medieval art.  

Bautz, Friedrich Wilhelm. ‘Hilarius, Quintus Julius’. Kirchenlexikon, 1990. Online. Brief compilation of what is known of an author who was once speculatively supposed to have written the earliest recension of the Liber Genealogus. That attribution is now doubtful.

Beer, Rudolf, and Juan Eloy D�az Jim�nez. Noticias bibliogr�ficas y cat�logo de los c�dices de la Santa Iglesia Catedral de L�on. Garzo, 1888. Online. Description of Bible of Vimara at p. 5. This bible kept at the Cat�dral de Le�n contains the OAM, but the beginning of the codex is lost. Did it contain a Great Stemma?  

Beltr�n Torreira, Federico-Mario. ‘Historia y Profec�a en el Donatismo Tard�o: El Liber Genealogus’ (1990). Focuses on the eschatalogical content of the latter versions of the Liber Genealogus, adopting the false assumption that its first writing occurred prior to the recension of 427.  

Bernheimer, Richard. ‘The Martyrdom of Isaiah’. The Art Bulletin 34, no. 1 (March 1, 1952): 19–34. Online. Useful in understanding an episode alluded to in the prophets section of the Great Stemma.  

Beyers, Rita. ‘Enfance de Marie et de J�sus’. In Lire dans le texte des apocryphes chr�tiens, edited by R�mi Gounelle, 15–34. Cahiers �vangile: nouvelle s�rie; Suppl. 148. Paris: Cerf, 2009. Online. Beyers, who teaches in Antwerp, offers here a short accessible account of the inflluence of the Protevangelium in the medieval world, emphasizing that it was accepted many centuries sooner in the Oriental churches than in the West.  

———. ‘Latin translation of the Protevangelium of James in ms. Paris, Sainte-Genevi�ve, 2787’. In Apocrypha hiberniae; 1: Evangelia infantiae, edited by M McNamara, 881–957. Corpus christianorum, series Apocryphorum 14. Turnhout: Brepols, 2001. The existence of Latin translations of this text originally composed in Greek is part of the evidence used to date the Great Stemma. Unfortunately it is difficult to prove an early date for the Latin translation.  

Bord, Lucien-Jean, and Piotr Skubiszewski. L’image de Babylone aux serpents dans les Beatus: Contribution a` l’e�tude des influences du Proche-Orient antique dans l’art du haut Moyen Age. Paris: Cariscript, 2000. Discusses the Bird and Serpent image which is mysteriously found alongside many copies of the Great Stemma.  

Bouquet, Mary. ‘Family Trees and Their Affinities: The Visual Imperative of the Genealogical Diagram’. Journal of the Royal Anthropological Institute 2, no. 1 (1996): 43–66. Online. Important discussion from an anthropology perspective of whether stemmatic diagrams are culturally ‘neutral’. Bouquet maintains that visualizations in stemma form are not universally intelligible.  

Broszio, Gabriele. Genealogia Christi: die Stammb�ume� Jesu in der Auslegung der christlichen� Schriftsteller der ersten f�nf Jahrhunderte. Bochumer altertumswissenschaftliches Colloquium (BAC). Trier: Wiss. Verl. Trier (WVT), 1994. A major compilation of early writing in Greek and Latin about the contradictions between the genealogies compiled by Matthew and Luke.  

Bruyne, Donatien de. ‘�tude sur les origines de la vulgate en Espagne’. Revue b�n�dictine 31 (1919): 373–401. Useful for its information on the gradual obsolence of the Vetus Latina. Important because Great Stemma manuscripts retain the Vetus Latina in the 10th and 11th centuries.  

Burgess, Richard W. Chronicles, Consuls, and Coins: Historiography and History in the Later Roman Empire. Variorum collected studies series CS984. Farnham; Burlington, VT: Ashgate Variorum, 2011. Online. A selection of the major articles by Burgess, who is a modern authority on Late Antique chronography.  

———. ‘Chronograph of 354’. The Encyclopedia of the Medieval Chronicle. Leiden: Brill, 2010. Discusses the remarkable Chronography, which has some resemblance to the contemporary Great Stemma since it combines text, tabulations, illustrations and graphics.

Burgess, Richard W., and Michael Kulikowski. ‘The History and Origins of the Latin Chronicle Tradition’. In The Medieval Chronicle VI, edited by Erik Kooper, 153–177. The Medieval Chronicle 6. Rodopi, 2009. Online. A useful introduction to the uses and readership of ancient chronicles though it does not mention the Great Stemma but concentrates on the purposes and means of history writing. Reviews the traps for medievalists in retrojecting the concepts of chronicle, annal and history to the early medieval period and beyond, arguing that lists of kings are not mere annals, but the very definition of a chronicle for the ancient historian.  

Burgess, Richard W. Studies in Eusebian and post-Eusebian chronography. Historia:� Zeitschrift f�r alte Geschichte. Einzelschriften, ISSN 0341-0056. Stuttgart: Steiner, 1999. A major analysis of the Chronological Canons: useful because we now know that data from these Canons has been overlaid on the original chronographic material in the Great Stemma.  

———. The Chronicle of Hydatius and the Consularia Constantinopolitana. Englewood Cliffs: Prentice Hall, 1993. Discusses a work that tells us when Jerome’s version of the Chronological Canons of Eusebius arrived in Iberia.  

Cain, Andrew, and Josef L�ssl. Jerome of Stridon: his life, writings and legacy. Aldershot: Ashgate, 2009. Includes discussion of Jerome’s onomastics: this is helpful towards understanding the mysterious non-Jeromian etymologies which are gathered in the Liber Genealogus.  

Campenhausen, Hans von. ‘Die Jungfrauengeburt in der Theologie der alten Kirche’. Sitzungsberichte der Heidelberger Akademie der Wissenschaften, Philosophisch-Historische Klasse� /� Stiftung Heinrich Lanz, ISSN 0933-6613 (1962). Provides useful and suitably sceptical background on the debate in Late Antiquity about Mary’s virginity and origin.  

Carruthers, Mary. The Book of Memory: A Study of Memory in Medieval Culture. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2008. Discusses how mnemonic techniques actually worked, and therefore useful to my argument that the Great Stemma is not a mnemonic device: it does not employ those techniques.  

———. The Craft of Thought: Meditation, Rhetoric. and the Making of Images 400-1200. Cambridge studies in medieval literature. Cambridge: Cambridge Univ. Press, 1998. Explores the patristic and Roman Republican models of the medieval ‘craft of memory’ and thus casts some light on the place of both visualizations and punctuation in Late Antiquity.  

Carruthers, Mary, and Jan M. Ziolkowski. The medieval craft of memory: an anthology of texts and pictures. University of Pennsylvania Press, 2004. Book of examples of mnemonic instructions, some in the form of drawings, to accompany Carruthers’ other more discursive titles.  

Corbier, Mireille. ‘Painting and familial and genealogical memory (Pliny, Natural History 35, 1-14)’. In Vita vigilia est: essays in honour of Barbara Levick, edited by Edward Bispham, Greg Rowe, and Elaine Matthews. Institute of Classical Studies, School of Advanced Study, University of London, 2007. Sceptical re-assessment of the prevailing wisdom on Pliny’s account of stemmata in Roman homes.  

Croke, Brian. ‘The Originality of Eusebius’ Chronicle’. The American Journal of Philology 103, no. 2 (01 1982): 195–200. Online. Considers some of the sources used by Eusebius of Caesarea.  

Dearn, Alan. ‘Donatist Identity and the Liber Genealogus’. In From Rome to Constantinople: studies in honour of Averil Cameron, edited by Hagit Amirav and Bas ter Haar Romeny. Leuven: Peeters, 2007. Online. Mostly about a few brief passages in the Liber voicing Donatism. The article does not discuss its overall form or intent.  

Evans, Craig A. ‘Patristic Interpretation of Mark 2:26 “When Abiathar Was High Priest”’. Vigiliae Christianae 40, no. 2 (June 1986): 183–186. Online. Useful for understanding an interpolation found in the Beta (and Gamma?) recension of the Great Stemma.  

Ewald, Paul. ‘Reise nach Spanien in Winter 1878 auf 1879’. Neues Archiv: Gesellschaft f�r �ltere Deutsche Geschichtskunde zur Bef�rderung einer Gesammtausgabe der Quellenschriften Deutscher Geschichten des Mittelalters vi (1880): 219–398. Online. Reports the rediscovery of the Liber Genealogus.  

Finegan, Jack. Handbook of biblical chronology. Princeton, NJ: Univ. Press, 1964. Standard source on chronography.  

F�hl, Walther. ‘Stammbaum:�Als k�nstlerische Darstellungsform verwandter Personen und Begriffe’. Reallexikon zur Deutschen Kunstgeschichte, n.d. An unsatisfactory art-historical discussion of the tree motif in which consanguinity tables and stemmata are freely mixed.

Fotheringham, John Knight, Eusebius of Caesarea, and Jerome. The Bodleian Manuscript of Jerome’s Version of the Chronicles of Eusebius. Clarendon Press, 1905. Online. A black-and-white facsimile edition of one of the earliest manuscripts of the Chronological Canons together with a useful introduction.  

Francis, James A. ‘Visual and Verbal Representation: Image, Text, Person and Power’. In A Companion to Late Antiquity, edited by Philip Rousseau. John Wiley & Sons, 2009. Offers an orienting introduction to the place of images in Late Antiquity, but pays no attention to diagrams.  

Frend, William H. The Donatist Church: a movement of protest in Roman North Africa. Re-issued. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1985. The classic introduction to the Donatists, who are possibly the North African community that gave rise to both the Liber Genealogus and the Great Stemma.  

Frick, Carl. Chronica minora. Leipzig: B. G. Teubner, 1892. Online. A classic compilation of chronographic texts, including one recension of the Liber Genealogus. The introduction was written by the book’s German author entirely in Latin. Published as ‘volume 1’ but no volume 2 ever appeared.  

———. ‘Joseph Justus Scaliger und die Excerpta Latina Barbari.’ Rheinisches Museum f�r Philologie 43 (1888): 123–27. Looks at a chronographic work which is an important witness to chronological debates in Late Antiquity and thus helpful in understanding the context in which the Great Stemma and Liber Genealogus were written.  

Garc�a Villada, Zacarias. ‘Cat�logo de los codices y documentos de la Catedral de Le�n: Garc�a Villada, Zacar�as, 1879-1936’, n.d. Online. Contains bibliographic data on the medieval manuscripts at the Cathedral of Le�n, of which the two Le�n bibles containing the Great Stemma are of prime interest.

Gelzer, Heinrich. Sextus Julius Africanus und die Byzantinische Chronographie. Leipzig: B. G. Teubner, 1898. Online. The standard source before the more recent publications by Wallraff q.v. on Julius Africanus, the likely author of the chronological scheme underlying the Great Stemma.  

Gijsel, Jan. ‘Het Protevangelium Iacobi in het Latijn’. Antiquit� Classique 50 (1981): 351–366. Discusses in Dutch the diffusion of Latin versions of the Protevangelium of James. The PEJ is presumed to be the source of the Great Stemma’s adoption of Joachim as the missing link in Christ’s ancestry.  

Gil Fern�ndez, Juan. ‘Jud�os y cristianos en la Hispania del s. VII’. Hispania sacra 30 (1977): 9–110. Online. Contains the first text-critical edition of the Ordo Annorum Mundi (at pp. 82-85). This text is inaccurate and is soon to be superseded by Mart�n’s much more exacting edition.  

Gil Fern�ndez, Juan, Jos� L. Moralejo, and Juan Ignacio Ruiz de la Pe�a. Cr�nicas asturianas. Universidad de Oviedo, 1985. Online. Issued after Gil Fern�ndez’s 1977 edition of the Ordo Annorum Mundi, offering transcriptions of a wider range of manuscripts.  

Gorman, Michael. ‘Codici manoscritti dalla Badia amiatina nel secolo XI’. In La Tuscia nell’alto e pieno medioevo. Fonti e temi storiografici ‘territoriali’ e ‘generali’, edited by Mario Marrocchi and Carlo Prezzolini, 15–102. Florence: Sismel-Edizioni del Galluzzo, 2007. Online. Slightly revised version of Gorman’s 2002 article, this time in Italian.  

———. ‘Manuscript Books at Monte Amiata in the Eleventh Century’. Scriptorium 56 (2002): 225–293: 268–271. Discovers a new manuscript of the Liber Genealogus at Cesena. Gorman argues that three manuscripts (Biblioteca Nazionale Centrale di Firenze, Conv. soppr. 364; Biblioteca Medicea Laurenziana plut. 20.54; and Cesena D.XXVI.1) were all made in the 11th century at the Abbey of San Salvatore at Monte Amiata, since they contain broadly the same texts. Gorman believes they were probably made to supply to users elsewhere, not for use at the monastery.  

Grafton, Anthony, and Megan Hale Williams. Christianity and the transformation of the book: Origen, Eusebius, and the library of Caesarea. Harvard University Press, 2006. An accessible introduction to the two early major works which introduced tabulation as a feature of book design: Origen’s Hexapla and Eusebius’s Chronological Canons.  

Gribomont, Jean. ‘L’Eglise et les versions bibliques’. La Maison-Dieu, no. 62 (1960): 41–68. Describes the replacement of the Vetus Latina by the Vulgate.  

Grumel, Venance. La Chronologie. Paris: Presses Univ. de France, 1958. Classic reference source on early Christian chronology. Although it does not mention the Great Stemma, it is helpful in understanding the time concepts the diagram employs.  

Guignard, Christophe. La lettre de Julius Africanus � Aristide sur la g�n�alogie du Christ. Texte und Untersuchungen zur Geschichte der altchristlichen Literatur /� Berlin-Brandenburgische Akademie der Wissenschaften, ISSN 0082-3589 167. Berlin: de Gruyter, 2011. Online. The most important recent discussion of the rival theories to explain the contradictions between the genealogy of Christ in Matthew and the genealogy in Luke. Guignard offers a text of the Letter to Aristides (with a newly discovered passage) along with a French translation, and an exhaustive survey of patristic Latin references to it.  

Heather, Peter J. ‘Cassiodorus and the Rise of the Amals: Genealogy and the Goths under Hun Domination’. The Journal of Roman Studies 79 (1989): 103–128. A discussion of the contributions of Cassiodorus to ruling-family genealogy. This is only notable in our context for the fact that no evidence emerges in this article that Cassiodorus used stemmatic diagrams to describe the Goths’ ancestry.  

Heer, Joseph Michael. Die Stammb�ume Jesu nach Matth�us und Lukas, ihre urspr�ngliche Bedeutung und Textgestalt und ihre Quellen: eine exegetisch-kritische Studie. Freiburg-im-Breisgau [Germany]: Herder, 1910. Contains a good study of the ur-form of Luke’s genealogy.  

Hillgarth, Jocelyn Nigel. ‘Historiography in Visigothic Spain’. In Visigothic Spain, Byzantium and the Irish, 261–311. Variorum collected studies series:� CS, ISSN 0961-7582. London: Variorum Reprints, 1985. A handy survey of history writing in the time of Julian, and therefor interesting in considering why a Visigothic writer might have wanted to alter the Great Stemma. First published in: La storiografia altomedievale. Settimane di studio del Centro italiano di studi sull’alto medioevo XVII (Spoleto, aprile 1969), Spoleto, 1970.  

Hippolytus, Tom Schmidt, and Nick Nicholas. Chronicon of Hippolytus. Clinton, NY: Private/on demand, 2010. English translation of one of the earliest Christian chronicles of the world from Creation to contemporary (Roman) times. Online. Useful in investigating the chronological aspects of the Great Stemma, though it seems not to be a source for the diagram.  

Hochuli Dubuis, Paule, and Isabelle Jeger. ‘Un Beatus d�couvert � Gen�ve’. Bibliografia dei manoscritti in scrittura beneventana (June 2009): 11–29. Online. Exciting account of the 21st-century discovery of a Beatus manuscipt, but unfortunately this manuscript does not include the Great Stemma.  

Inglebert, Herv�. Interpretatio christiana: les mutations des savoirs (cosmographie, g�ographie, �thnographie, histoire) dans l’Antiquite chretienne (30-630 apres J.C.). Paris: Inst. d’�tudes Augustiniennes, 2001. The second of Inglebert’s major works on history-writing in Late Antiquity. This one is particularly useful for its analysis of the ethnic groups named in the later recensions of the Liber Genealogus, providing some clues for the alert reader as to how that work came to be modified.  

———. Les romains chr�tiens face � l’histoire de Rome. Collection des� �tudes augustiniennes, S�rie Antiquit�s. Paris: Inst. d’�tudes Augustiniennes, 1996. First of two magisterial works discussing the Liber Genealogus and many other Late Antique history books, establishing the context in which they were written. Does not mention the Great Stemma.  

Johnson, Marshall D. The Purpose of the Biblical Genealogies: with special reference to the setting. Monograph Series 8. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1988. An informative discussion of the peculiarly Jewish motives for developing genealogies of Jesus in the Gospels. Johnson’s hypothesis about the target of Julius Africanus’s fierce opposition has since been rejected by Guignard q.v.  

Julius Africanus, and Martin Wallraff. Chronographiae: the extant fragments. Translated by William Adler. Die griechischen christlichen Schriftsteller des ersten Jahrhunderte; N.F. 15. Berlin: de Gruyter, 2007. Online. The definitive text of this largely lost chronographic work. A probable source text used by the Great Stemma author. While this link has not been conclusively proved, the introduction and notes to Wallraff’s edition are vital reading if one is to understand the underlying chronological concepts of the diagram.  

Kaestli, Jean-Daniel. ‘Le Prot�vangile de Jacques en latin. �tat de la question et perspectives nouvelles’. Revue d’histoire des textes 26 (1996): 41–102. Sums up medieval evidence about the Protevangelium of James (PEJ ), which is presumed to be the source of the Great Stemma’s adoption of Joachim as missing link in Christ’s ancestry.  

Kamesar, Adam. Jerome, Greek scholarship, and the Hebrew Bible: a study of the Quaestiones hebraicae in Genesim. Oxford University Press, 1993. Discusses pp 103-126 the onomastic work of Jerome of Hippo, comparing several etymologies to Greek sources. Useful for a better contextual understanding, 80 years after Wutz q.v., of the etymologies in the Liber Genealogus.  

Koon, Sam, and Jamie Wood. ‘The Chronica Maiora of Isidore of Seville’. e-Spania, no. 6. Chroniques br�ves castillanes (December 13, 2008). Online. Offers an introduction to the text and context of Isidore’s greater chronicle along with an English translation of the two successive redactions of the text. A translation of the lesser chronicle, the Chronica Minora, the epitome of the greater chronicle that Isidore included in his Etymologies,can be found the recently published Cambridge University Press translation of the Etymologies (Barney et al., 2006).  

Krašovec, Jože. The transformation of biblical proper names. London: Continuum, 2010. Online. Explores the various transformations of biblical proper names and has some mention of the most recent onomastic work in a note on page 90. K became interested in names while translating biblical texts into Slovenian. Perhaps useful in the context of understanding the forms of the biblical names in the Great Stemma and the Liber Genealogus.  

Ladner, Gerhart Burian. Images and ideas in the Middle Ages: selected studies in history and art. Ed. di Storia e Letteratura, 1983. Contains an extended discussion from page 266 of the consanguinity matrices, based on the previous work by Schadt. Both Schadt and Ladner call them stemmata: I would argue that this term is inappropriate.  

Lagarde, Paul de. Onomastica sacra: Pauli de Lagarde studio et sumptibus alterum edita. 2nd ed. G�ttingen [Germany]: Horstmann, 1887. Important for its discovery of the Greek work which either directly provided the etymological content of the Liber Genealogus or is a witness for a common source. Do not use the 1870 first edition.  

———. ‘Septuaginta Studien II ... am 7. Juni 1890 vorgelegt’. Abhandlungen der historisch-philologischen Klasse der k�niglichen Gesellschaft der Wissenschaften zu G�ttingen 38 (1892): 3–102. Online. One of the principal editions of the Liber Genealogus preceding Mommsen’s, useful because it includes scriptural footnotes for all the names.  

Lagrange, Marie-Joseph. �vangile selon Saint Luc. 8th ed. �tudes Bibliques. Paris: Gabalda, 1948. Online. Discusses the peculiarities of the genealogy in the Gospel of Luke. Though Lagrange does not mention the Great Stemma or related work, he provides much relevant information on the early transmission of Luke’s text.  

———. Le Livre des Juges. Paris: Victor Lecoffre, 1903. A detailed study of the Book of Judges and its transmission in early Christian manuscripts: useful in understanding how the names and phases have been manipulated in the Great Stemma and where the alterations might come from.  

Lomax, D W. ‘Una cr�nica in�dita de Silos [Cronica Albeldense]’. In Homenaje a P�rez de �rbel, 1:323–337. Silos, 1976. Online. An account of one of the chronicles which transmits the Ordo Annorum Mundi.  

Long�re, Jean, and �douard Cothenet. Marie dans les r�cits apocryphes chr�tiens: Communications pr�sent�es � la 60e Session de la Soci�t� fran�aise d’�tudes mariales, Sanctuaire Notre-Dame-du-Ch�ne, Solesmes, 2003. Mediaspaul Editions, 2004. An accessible brief discussion of the Protoevangelium of James (PEJ).  

Marsden, Richard. The text of the Old Testament in Anglo-Saxon England. Cambridge University Press, 1995. Online. Mentions the diffusion of some of the non-canonical Old Testament names in early English books.  

Merkel, Helmut. Die Widerspr�che zwischen den Evangelien: ihre polemische und apologetische Behandlung in der Alten Kirche bis zu Augustin. T�bingen [Germany]: Mohr, 1971. Illuminating and much-quoted source on the contradictions between Matthew and Luke over genealogy (and other topics).  

Mommsen, Theodor. ‘Zur Lateinischen Stichometrie’. Hermes 21 (1886): 142–156. Online. Contains Mommsen’s transcript of the stichometric table for books of the Old and New Testament as well as about 100 works by Cyprian. Mommsen used a manuscript that is now in Rome. He later established a second copy was at St. Gall. These manuscripts also contain the earliest (G) version of the Liber Genealogus. See Rouse/McNelis for a discussion.  

Monceaux, Paul. ‘Les recensions africaines du “Liber genealogus”’. Comptes-rendus des s�ances de l’Acad�mie des Inscriptions et Belles-Lettres 59, no. 7 (1915): 500–501. Online. Early version of the analysis of the Liber Genealogus that was later developed in Monceaux’s book.  

———. Litt�rature donatiste au temps de Saint Augustin. Vol. 6. 7 vols. Histoire litt�raire de l’Afrique chr�tienne depuis les origines jusqu’� l’invasion arabe. Paris: �ditions Ernest Leroux, 1922. Online. A key work on the Liber Genealogus. Monceaux’s hypothesis that several recensions go back beyond 427 is unlikely. My view is that the work was written in 427.  

Moore, George Foot. A Critical and Exegetical Commentary on Judges. Edinburgh: Clark, 1895. Online. A useful 19th-century review of the manuscripts. In particular see p 270 ff dealing with Tola and Jair.  

Mosshammer, Alden A. The Chronicle of Eusebius and Greek Chronographic Tradition. Lewisburg: Bucknell Univ. Pr. [u.a.], 1979. Online. One of the principal learned studies of Eusebius and vital in understanding the modifications to the Great Stemma’s chronographic sections.  

Naydenova-Slade, Mellie, and David Park. ‘The Earliest Holy Kinship Image, The Salomite Controversy and a Little-Known Centre of Learning in Northern England in the Twelfth Century’. Journal of the Warburg and Courtauld Institutes 71 (2008): 95–119. Online. Touches briefly on belief in Joachim father of Mary before turning to its later evolution into the popular medieval Trinubium theory.  

Nestle, Eberhard. ‘Samgar’. Zeitschrift f�r die alttestamentliche Wissenschaft, no. 32 (1912): 152–153. Online. Brief review over two pages of the shifting place of Shamgar in the book of Judges, quoting the T and L recensions of the Liber Genealogus. Read this to understand the double appearance of Shamgar in the Great Stemma.  

Netz, Reviel, and William Noel. The Archimedes Codex. Revealing the secrets of the world’s greatest palimpsest. London. Orion, 2007. A quest narrative about the rediscovery of Archimedean diagrams. Successfully brought palaeographic issues to a popular audience.  

Nixon, Virginia. Mary’s mother: Saint Anne in late medieval Europe. Penn State Press, 2004. Contains a very brief reference at the start to the early medieval development of the Anne and Joachim doctrine.  

Norman, Jeremy. ‘From Cave Paintings to the Internet’. History of Science, n.d. Online. An encyclopaedic survey of advances in graphic and text technology that is helpful towards a long view of the place in history of the Great Stemma.

O’Donnell, James J. Avatars of the word: from papyrus to cyberspace. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1998. Essay comparing the scholarly techniques of Late Antiquity to those of the 1990s internet with especial attention to Augustine of Hippo. The ‘contemporary’ elements now seem somewhat dated.  

Opelt, Ilona. ‘Etymologie’. Reallexikon f�r Antike und Christentum (RAC), 1965. Reformulates the findings of Wutz 50 years later. She repeats Wutz’s somewhat misleading term ‘Laktanzgruppe’ to describe the biblical etymologies in V3, V4 and the Liber Genealogus.

Pearse, Roger. ‘Jerome, Chronicle. Preface to the Online Edition’, 2005. Online. Accessible account of what the Eusebius/Jerome Chronicle is about.

Perrot, Charles. Marie et la sainte famille: Les r�cits apocryphes chr�tiens. Communications pr�sent�es � la 62e session de la soci�t� fran�aise d’�tudes mariales, espace Bernadette Soubirous, Nevers, septembre 2005. Mediaspaul Editions, 2006. Discussion of the Protoevangelium of James (PEJ) and the belief that Mary’s parents were a couple named Joachim and Anne.  

Poland, Franz. ‘Stemma’. Paulys Realencyclop�die der classischen Altertumswissenschaft. Zweite Reihe. Sechster Halbband. Sparta - Stluppi. (Bd. III A, 2). 2330-2331., 1929. Brief definition of the term but without examples.

Prat, Ferdinand. ‘1. G�n�alogie; 2. G�n�alogie de J�sus-Christ’. Dictionnaire de la Bible. Paris: Letouzey et An�, 1926. Two articles summarizing the received wisdom of a century ago on the contradictions in the biblical genealogies.

Reed, Annette Yoshiko. ‘Job as Jobab: The Interpretation of Job in LXX Job 42:17b-e’. Journal of Biblical Literature 120, no. 1 (Spring 2001): 31–55. Online. A useful example of a Septuaginta passage found on most recensions of the Great Stemma.  

Reinhardt, Klaus. ‘Castillo, Hernando de’. Edited by Klaus Reinhardt. Bibelkommentare spanischer Autoren (1500-1700). CSIC, 1990. Online. Summarizes literature about a Spanish scholar who unwittingly conveyed information about a sighting of part of the Great Stemma before 772 CE.

Roca-Puig, Ram�n. Himne a la verge Maria: ‘Psalmus responsorius’; papir llat� del segle IV. 2. ed. Barcelona: Asociaci�n de Bibli�filos de Barcelona, 1965. Discusses the earliest documentary evidence in Latin of the Protevangelium of James.The PEJ is presumed to be the source of the Great Stemma’s adoption of Joachim as the missing link in Christ’s ancestry.  

Rosenberg, Daniel, and Anthony Grafton. Cartographies of Time. New York: Princeton Architectural Press, 2010. A lushly illustrated account of timelines including both the Chronological Canons of Eusebius and the Compendium of Peter of Poitiers. But omits the Great Stemma and its undoubted contribution.  

Routh, Martin Joseph. ‘Julius Africanus’. In Reliquiae Sacrae. Vol. 2. Oxford, n.d. A now out-of-date edition of the works of Julius Africanus, helpful by being online. Superseded by Guignard, q.v.  

Sanders, Henry A. ‘The Genealogies of Jesus’. Journal of Biblical Literature 32, no. 3 (September 1913): 184–193. A review of early manuscript evidence from the gospels. The author was later an editor of the Beatus Commentary.  

Schwartz, Eduard. ‘Die K�nigslisten des Eratosthenes und Kastor’. Abhandlungen der historisch-philologischen Klasse der k�niglichen Gesellschaft der Wissenschaften zu G�ttingen 40 (May 1894). Online. This arithmetic-rich article offers insights into Late Antique chronography, including the difference between Julius Africanus and Eusebius in dating 1 Ahaz.  

Scott, James M. Geography in early Judaism and Christianity: the Book of Jubilees. Cambridge University Press, 2002. An account of the T-O map seen in some manuscripts of the Great Stemma. Its suggestions about the origin of this little schematic diagram are not without interest, but seem over-stretched.  

Small, Jocelyn Penny. ‘Time in Space: Narrative in Classical Art’. Art Bulletin 81, no. 4 (December 1999): 562–575. Discusses how the passage of time was depicted in classical Antiquity. The reader may find this useful in considering the intellectual context of the Great Stemma, although Small has nothing to say about diagrams as such.  

Speyer, Wolfgang. ‘Der bisher �lteste lateinische Psalmus abecedarius: Zur Editio princeps von R. Roca-Puig’. In Fr�hes Christentum im antiken Strahlungsfeld: Ausgew�hlte Aufs�tze. T�bingen [Germany]: Mohr Siebeck, 1989. Online. Not merely a review of Roca-Puig’s edition of the oldest Latin work to allude to the Protevangelium of James (PEJ) but also an improved edition of the text.  

———. ‘Die leibliche Abstammung Jesu im Urteil der Schriftsteller der alten Kirche’. In Fr�hes Christentum im antiken Strahlungsfeld: Ausgew�hlte Aufs�tze. T�bingen [Germany]: Mohr Siebeck, 2000. Online. Brief review of early Christian writing on the contradictions between Luke and Matthew.  

Stancati, Tommaso. Julian of Toledo Prognosticum Futuri Saeculi (Foreknowledge of the World to Come). Ancient Christian Writers 63. The Newman Press, 2010. Contains some discussion of Julian’s political career, but little about his chronological views. The first English translation of the Prognosticum futuri saeculi of Julian of Toledo (624-690), the most ancient treatise of Christian eschatology, which sets out the doctrine of purifying fire. The latter belief doubtless influenced Justus the notary a century later in the testamentary arrangements with which Justus inadvertently also noted the existence of a copy of the Great Stemma.  

Stevenson, James. Creeds, councils and controversies: documents illustrating the history of the Church AD 337-461. London: SPCK, 1995. Contains a paragraph or two of the Liber Genealogus, one of its only translations into English.  

Stone, Michael. Signs of the judgement, Onomastica sacra, and the generations from Adam. Chico� CA: Scholars Press, 1981. A study of manuscripts in Armenian containing the kind of onomastic lists that show up in the Liber Genealogus. The book is potentially useful in understanding the latter book and why it was seen as an enhancement to the Great Stemma. Not yet consulted.  

Strycker, Emile de. La forme la plus ancienne du prot�vangile de Jacques. Subsidia hagiographica� /� Soci�t� des Bollandistes, ISSN 0777-8112. Bruxelles: Soc. des Bollandistes, 1961. Sets out Strycker’s emphatic views that the Protevangelium of James (PEJ) dates from the end of the 2nd century, not earlier.  

Tilley, Maureen A. The Bible in Christian North Africa: the Donatist world. Fortress Press, 1997. Online. The Donatists made heavy use of the Liber Genealogus and it is conceivable that the Great Stemma is a Donatist work: this work is therefore a handy introduction to their biblical scholarship.  

Ullman, Berthold Louis. The humanism of Coluccio Salutati. Medioevo e umanesimo. Padova: Ed. Antenore, 1963. Discusses the history of the Florence manuscript which contains the oldest recension of the Great Stemma.  

Waetjen, H. C. ‘The Genealogy as the Key to the Gospel according to Matthew’. Journal of Biblical Literature 95, no. 2 (June 1976): 205–230. Useful in understanding the Matthew toledot.  

Wallraff, Martin, ed. Julius Africanus und die christliche Weltchronistik. Texte und Untersuchungen zur Geschichte der altchristlichen Literatur. Berlin: de Gruyter, 2006. Online. An illuminating set of modern studies of the Chronographiae, a work by Julius Africanus (see above) which Wallraff published in 2007. The Great Stemma author may have relied on the Chronographiae as his sole or principal source of historical and biblical periods and dates.  

Wellen, G. A. Theotokos: Eine ikonographische Abhandlung �ber das Gottesmutterbild in fr�hchristlichen Zeit. Utrecht: Het Spektrum, 1961. Mainly useful for its negative evidence. Joachim and Anne, the parents of Mary proposed by the Protevangelium of James, emerge only gradually in Late Antique art in the East (for example in the 7th-century frescoes in the Chapel of Joachim and Anne at Kizil �ukur in Cappadocia) and are only later adopted in the West (Wellen reproduces a first fresco depicting Anne in Santa Maria Antiqua, Rome, dated to 757-767). No confirmed earlier Western sightings are mentioned.  

Wutz, Franz Xaver. Onomastica sacra: Untersuchungen zum Liber interpretationis nominum hebraicorum des hl. Hieronymus. 2 vols. Leipzig: J. C. Hinrichs, 1914. Examines the onomastic material exploited by the Liber Genealogus author (though Wutz was not aware until he was on the verge of publication that the manuscripts he had studied contained the T and L recensions of that work). Wutz denoted this onomastic material the ‘Laktanzgruppe’.  

Early Texts

Beatus of Li�bana, and Joaqu�n Gonz�lez Echegaray. Obras completas de Beato de Liebana. Madrid: Estudio teologico de San Ildefonso; Biblioteca de autores cristianos, 1995. Latin (Sanders edition) and Spanish translation of the Apocalypse Commentary: the manuscripts often contain the Great Stemma as a frontispiece to this.  

Beatus of Li�bana, and Roger Gryson. Tractatus de Apocalipsin. Corpus Christianorum. Turnhout: Brepols, 2012. Online. A new edition of the Apocalypse Commentary of Beatus. Gryson briefly discusses the genealogical table found at the front of some Beatus manuscripts.  

Belsheim, Johannes, ed. Codex colbertinus parisiensis. Qvatuor Evangelia ante Hieronymum latine translata post editionem Petri Sabatier cum ipso codice collatam, n.d. Online. A Vetus Latina text of the Four Gospels.  

Chromatius, Raymond Etaix, and Joseph Lemarie. Chromatii Aquileiensis opera. Turnhout: Brepols, 1974. Contains confirmation from before 402 CE that there were explanations of the gospel contradictions which reconnected the Lucan text from Joseph to Mary. Chromatius does not mention the Great Stemma or the Protevangelium of James.  

Dindorf, Ludwig August. Chronicon paschale. Bonn: E Weber, 1832. Online. A 7th-century chronographic work partly reliant on the tradition of Julius Africanus.  

Eusebius of Caesarea, and Rudolf Helm. Eusebius Werke VII: Die Chronik des Hieronymus. Die Griechischen Christlichen Schriftsteller (GCS) 47. Berlin: Akademie, 1956. The standard edition of Jerome’s version of the Eusebian Chronological Canons.  

Eusebius of Caesarea, and Josef Karst. Die Chronik: aus dem Armen. �bersetzt. Die Griechischen christlichen Schriftsteller der ersten drei Jahrhunderte� /� Kommission f�r Sp�tantike Religionsgeschichte der Deutschen Akademie der Wissenschaften zu Berlin. Leipzig: Hinrichs, 1911. Online. The standard edition in German translation of the Armenian version of the Eusebian Chronological Canons.  

Hippolytus, Rudolf Helm, and Adolf Bauer. Hippolytus Werke IV: Chronicon. Die Griechischen Christlichen Schriftsteller (GCS) 46. Berlin: Akademie-Verlag, 1955. The standard edition of the chronographic work of Hippolytus of Rome. Andrei has called for a new edition.  

Isidore. ‘De Ortu et Obitu Patrum’. In Patrologia Latina, edited by Jacques-Paul Migne, 129–156. 83. Paris: Migne, 1850. An edition of Isidore’s guide to biblical names, quotations from which appear to show up in Spanish late recensions of the Great Stemma.  

Isidore of Seville, and Jos� Carlos Mart�n. Isidori Hispalensis Chronica. Turnhout: Brepols, 2003. The definitive edition of Isidore’s chronicles, from which quotations have been inserted into Spanish late recensions of the Great Stemma.  

James, M.R. ‘Inventiones Nominum’. Journal of Theological Studies os-IV, no. 14 (1903): 218–244. Online. The editio princeps of a guide to the frequency of biblical names. The guide is one of a group of works that often includes the Liber Genealogus, and it includes some of the same apocryphal name as are found in the Great Stemma.  

Jerome, Roger Pearse, and Eusebius of Caesarea. ‘Jerome’s Latin translation of The Chronological Canons of Eusebius: a collaborative English translation’, 2005. Online. A remarkable English translation accomplished by crowd sourcing over the internet.

Julius Africanus, and Martin Wallraff. Chronographiae: the extant fragments. Translated by William Adler. Die griechischen christlichen Schriftsteller des ersten Jahrhunderte; N.F. 15. Berlin: de Gruyter, 2007. Online. The definitive text of this largely lost chronographic work. A probable source text used by the Great Stemma author. While this link has not been conclusively proved, the introduction and notes to Wallraff’s edition are vital reading if one is to understand the underlying chronological concepts of the diagram.  

Justin Martyr. ‘Dialogue with Trypho’. In Ante-Nicene Fathers 1, edited by Alexander Roberts, James Donaldson, A. Cleveland Coxe, and Kevin Knight, translated by Marcus Dods and George Reith. Buffalo, NY: Christian Literature Publishing Co., 1885. Online. The first patristic work that seems to suggest the Gospel of Luke gives a genealogy of Mary, not of Joseph.  

Mommsen, Theodor, ed. ‘[Liber Generationis II:] Section XV [of the] Chronographus anni CCCLIIII’. In Chronicorum minororum saec. IV. V. VI. VII, 1:78–153. Monumenta Germaniae Historica (MGH), Auctores Antiquissimi (AA) 9. Berlin: Weidmann, 1892. Online. One of the key chronographic texts from the same period as the Great Stemma.  

Origen, and Rowan A. Greer. Origen. Classics of Western Spirituality. Paulist Press, 1979. Online. Handy English translation of principal Origen writings.  

Origen, and Ronald E Heine. Homilies on Genesis and Exodus. The fathers of the church: a new translation 71. Washington DC: Catholic University of America Press, 1982. English translation of writings of Origen of Alexandria on Old Testament topics also touched on by the Great Stemma.  

Pfaff, Christoph Matth�us. Firmiani Lactantii Epitome Institutionum Divinarum ad Pentadium fratrem. Paris, 1712. The editio princeps of the Liber Genealogus, containing a succession of works from the Codex Taurinensis, principally the Eipitome of Lactantius, with a Dissertatio Praeliminaris on these texts, notes and index.  

Pseudo-Hilarius, and Angelo Mai. ‘Tractatus Sanctus Hilarii Episcopi’. In Sancti Augustini novi ex codicibus Vaticanis sermones, item eiusdem speculum et alia quaedam cum diversorum patrum scriptis et tabulis XVI, 1:477–484. Novae patrum bibliothecae. Rome: Typis Sacri Consilii Propagando Christiano Nomini, 1852. Online. A tract on the Gospel contradictions which contains the following very early allusion to an explanation affine to that in the Great Stemma: A lot of people want the generations which Matthew enumerates to apply to Joseph, and the generations which Luke enumerates to apply to Mary, arguing that the man is the ‘head’ of the woman, requiring that even for her generation, the man should be named. Pseudo-Hilarius rejects this.  

Rahlfs, Alfred, and Robert Hanhart. Septuaginta: id est Vetus Testamentum graece iuxta LXX interpretes. Ed. altera. Stuttgart: Deutsche Bibelstiftung, 2006. Online. Manual edition of the Septuagint Old Testament.  

Robert, Ulysse. Heptateuchi partis posterioris versio Latina antiquissima e codice Lugdunensi. Lyon: Rey, 1900. Online. Transcript containing Vetus Latina Itala text of Judges.This version may also give some hints as to the African Vetus Latina text. Useful in Great Stemma research to study Judges 10: 1-3.  

Sabatier, Pierre. Bibliorum Sacrorum latinae versiones antiguae. Reims: Reginaldus Florentain, 1743. Online. The first printed compilation of the Vetus Latina text of scripture, now partly superseded by the still incomplete Beuron series.  

Sheridan, Mark, ed. Genesis 12-50. Ancient Christian Commentary on Scripture. InterVarsity Press, 2002. Online. A selection of varied patristic commentaries in English translation on the second half of Genesis.  

Weber, Robert. Les anciennes versions latines du deuxi�me livre des Paralipom�ne. Rome, 1945. A Vetus Latina text of the Second Book of Chronicles of the Old Testament.  

Willker, Wieland. ‘Protevangelium of James’, 2000. Online. A German translation with a Greek text of the apocryphal gospel-style work from about 200 CE which is believed to have influenced the Great Stemma.

The GCS series is usefully summarized here.

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