The Date of the Great Stemma


The Great Stemma carries neither a date nor an author's name, but we are fortunate to possess a sibling Latin work, the Liber Genealogus, which provides both a date and a context for the diagram.[*]Code AN gen in the Répertoire des auteurs ecclésiastiques latins de l'antiquité et du haut moyen âge (formerly Verzeichnis der Sigel für Kirchenschriftsteller) (Freiburg: Herder, 2007), formerly Fischer's Verzeichnis der Sigel: Kirchenschriftsteller). Its number in the Clavis Patrum Latinorum is 2254.The text in its earliest form appears in the editions section of this website.

Until recently, the anonymous Liber was regarded as a free-standing and rather barren work of fifth-century Christian scholarship. In 2012 it was demonstrated for the first time that the Liber Genealogus was written as a description of the Great Stemma diagram, enriched with etymological explanations of the biblical names' Hebrew meanings, patches of theological speculation and an appendix of events after the time of Christ.[*]Jean-Baptiste Piggin. The Great Stemma: A Late Antique Diagrammatic Chronicle of Pre-Christian Time. Studia Patristica 62 (July 2013): 259–78. ibid. Mind's Eye: How One Ancient Latin Invented Our Way to Visualize Stories. Auckland: Cernimus, 2018.

This proof focuses on the order of the names in the first version of the Liber Genealogus, the G version dated 427 CE, to deduce from it information about the working practices of the text's author.

The Hebrew term toledot, which means generations, describes the many genealogies presented in the Pentateuch. Every toledot in Genesis and Exodus presents its names generation by generation, as the term toledot indicates, but another traverse would have been conceivable.

Traversing is a term from mathematics and computer programming to describe a rule-based sequence for reading the nodes of a tree diagram: the reader begins at the root and could recite all the individuals at the first degree of separation from the root (in the case of a genealogy, this means naming the forefather first, then completely running through all the names of the second generation). This would be called a breadth-first traverse. It goes on to read the complete range of cousin nodes which comprise the third generation, and so on. The breadth-first traverse sequence can also be described as level order.

Most of the text in the Liber Genealogus makes a breadth-first traverse through the data, just as Book of Genesis does.

However in a few cases, particularly when dealing with less important data that is given some etymological analysis, the order of handling changes in the G recension to depth-first traverse, which is to say that the lines of descent are followed from the root through the second generation's first child, then continuing out to his first son (the third generation), and so on to the furthest offspring, then doubling back to any siblings of that furthest offspring. When that branch has been completely described, the reader backtracks to the prior generation's second child and completely explores his offspring, and so on.

These concepts are handily explained with diagrams in the Wikipedia articles tree traversal, breadth-first and depth-first.

We find the distinctive approach of depth-first traverse in the Liber treatment of the offspring of Keturah, a slave-spouse of Abraham. The scriptural text, Genesis 25:1-4, is predominantly a breadth-first traverse.

Here is the Vetus Latina version, as established by Fischer (d'Aboville numbers are attached to the genealogies on this page in order to make it easier to understand how the traverse alters in the various versions. The items to which the reader should pay special attention are in bold face):[*]See Fischer, Genesis.

Adiciens Abraham accepit uxorem cui nomen Cettura et peperit ei (1) Iembram et (2) Iectan et (3) Madan et (4) Madian et (5) Iesboc et (6) Soe; et Iectan genuit (2.1) Sabau et (2.2) Theman et (2.3) Dedan, et filii Dedan fuerunt (2.3.1) Raguel et (2.3.2) Namdel et (2.3.3) Assyrin et (2.3.4) Latisin et (2.3.5) Lomomin; et filii Madian: (4.1) Gefar et (4.2) Afer et (4.3) Enoch et (4.4) Abira et (4.5) Ezrasa. Omnes hii filii Ceturae.

In the Liber Genealogus G, we find a notable change: the traverse has been altered to depth-first. Note how the personages marked above in bold text, numbered 3, 4 ,5 and 6, are delayed. Each is only listed after his older brother's descendants have been exhaustively listed:[*]The full text of the Liber Genealogus G is included in this edition in the aftermatter. This text is preserved in two manuscripts: St. Gall, Stiftsbibliothek 133, (CLA VII.911), written during the late 8th or early 9th century, probably at St. Gall, and Rome, Biblioteca Nazionale Centrale Vittorio Emanuele II, Vitt. Em. 1325 (formerly Cheltenham or Phillipps 12266), written at Nonantola in the 10th or early 11th century.

Nam et de Cettura concubina habuit Abraham filios sex: (1a) primitivus Iebda, (1b) secundus Baux; (2) III Iectan; et filii eius tres: (2.1) primitivus Sabau, (2.2) secundus Theman, (2.3) III Dedan; et filii eius Dedan quinque et ista nomina eorum: (2.3.1) primogenitus Raguel, (2.3.2) secundus Namdel, (2.3.3) III Assyrin, (2.3.4) IIII Latisunt, (2.3.5) V Lomomen;(3) tertius vero filius Abrahae Madam, (4) quartus Maxian; et filii eius quinque: (4.1) primitivus Gefar, (4.2) secundus Afer, (4.3) III Enoch, (4.4) IIII Abira, (4.5) V Aezrasa. (5) VI vero filius Abrahae Iesboe, (6) VII Soreri; hii omnes filii Abrahae sex de Cettura et nepotes XIII.

The manipulation in order is significant, since it implies, at the very least, that the Liber author was working from abstracts or notes.[*] The numbering 1a and 1b arises because this version of the Liber misreads Iembram (corrected to Zimram in the Great Stemma) and splits the name in two, transmitting it as Iebda and Baux. As a result, the G text promises to name six sons of Keturah, but actually names seven. In addition, three of the names given, Theman, Raguel and Namdel, will be unfamiliar to western bible readers, as they were suppressed by Jerome.

Only if such an abstract were a graphical stemma would a depth-first traverse offer a natural reading order. We are driven to the conclusion that the G author has not copied the names directly from Genesis, but from a diagram, reading each descent through to its end before beginning on the next child of Keturah, as shown in the next figure.

The other recensions of the Liber Genealogus make it even plainer how attentive the authors are to order. Only eleven years after G, the Liber Genealogus F recension is prepared, perhaps as a fresh learning exercise (online in Plutei 20.54). Its editor appears to have both the Genesis and the G recension in front of him. Something odd happens. He notices the difference in order and rectifies it in a remarkable manner: he leaves his predecessor's depth-first sequence in place, but cautiously re-inserts persons 3, 4, 5 and 6 in their breadth-first positions as well, so that they are now duplicated:[*]This text can be read online: see Plutei 20.54 in Florence from 24r, commencing "Incipiunt genealogiae ...". Keturah begins near the end of 26r, 19 folios before the Great Stemma. Either the F editor, or a later copyist, has also used Jerome's Vulgate to rectify the names themselves: the Iebda-Baux split has been corrected, Ezrasa has been hebraicized to Eldaa, and the number of grandchildren has been corrected from 13 to 12 through the deletion of Theman. Oddly, Raguel and Namdel have been allowed to stand.

Nam et de Cetthura concubina nati sunt Abraae filii VI: (1) primus nomine Zamram, (2) secundus Iexsam, (3) tertius Madian, (4) quartus Madian, (5) sextus [sic] Iesbochi, (6) sextus Sue; hii filii Abrae de Cetthura; porro Iexsam genuit: (2.1) Saban et (2.3) Dadan; Dadam autem genuit filios V (2.3.1) primus Raguel, (2.3.2) secundus Namdehel, (2.3.3) tertius Assurim, (2.3.4) quartus Latusim, (2.3.5) quintus Lommin; (3) tertius vero filius Habrae de Cetthura Madan dictus est, (4) quartus Madian et hii filii eius V: (4.1) primus Epha, (4.2) secundus Afer, (4.3) tertius Enoc, (4.4) quartus Abida, (4.5) quintus Eldaa; omnes hii filii Madian; (5) quinque filius Abraam Iesboch, (6) sextus Sue; hii omnes filii Abraam de Cetthura et nepotes duodecim (Link to 26r).

The T recension, or Origo Humani Generis, is by contrast quite rigorous, fully following the Genesis structure and eliminating G's experiment with depth first. [*]De Cetthura concubina genuit filios sex: primus Lebda, secundus Bauz, tertius Iectan, quartus Mazian, quintus Iebos, sextus Coseri. Iectan genuit filios tres: primus Abaudus, secundus Temnan, tertius Dedan. Dedan genuit filios quinque: primus Raguel, secundus Nabdel, tertius Assur, quartus Latisin, quintus Lomon. Mazias genuit filios quinque: primus Cephur, secundus Afer, tertius Enodi, quartus Abira, quintus Ezrasa. But the Origo author has found a curious way of rectifying the number of Kettura's sons to six: he has decided to stay with the Iebda-Bauz split while eliminating the first of the Madan-Madian pair.

The diagrammatic order of Keturah shown above is the order used in the present edition. It is one of five full or partial instances where the scriptural order of the names is altered in the G recension (and sometimes L too) under the influence of the diagram. The other cases are set out at the foot of this page.

The close bond with the Liber Genealogus is corroborated by many other observations.

In particular, they both culminate in a key commentary which interprets the genealogies in the light of verse 5:5 of the New Testament Book of Revelation and asserts that Luke the evangelist's genealogy, from the forefather Nathan, in fact terminates at Mary, not Joseph. Both comment that these parallel biological descents are explained in Revelation by a lion symbolizing Solomon and a root symbolizing the obscure royal son Nathan.[*]Gen 49:9 associates the tribe of Judah with a lion cub; Isaiah 11:1, 10, echoed in Rom 15:12, establishes the phrase "root of Jesse". This exegesis says:[*]Sicut Lucas evangelista per Natan ad Mariam originem ducit, ita et Matheus euvangelista per Salomonem ad Ioseph originem demonstrabit id est ex tribu Iuda, ut apparet eos de una tribu exire et sic ad Christum secundum carnem pervenire. Ut compleatur quod scriptum est, "Ecce vicit leo de tribu Iuda radix David," leo ex Salomone et radix ex Natan.

Whereas the evangelist Luke traces the origin of Mary back to Nathan, the evangelist Mathew traces that of Joseph back to Solomon, demonstrating an ancestry from the tribe of Judah. Thus it is clear that these two are biologically descended from a single tribe, leading down to Christ, so that what was written might be fulfilled, "Behold, the lion of the tribe of Judah, the root of David, has prevailed," whereby the lion is Solomon, the root is Nathan.

We know the Liber Genealogus G follows the order of the diagram at the micro level. What can we say of the macro level? Here, once again, we find that the text order mimics the natural reading order of the diagram, not a chronological or biblical order. The numbers in the following diagram represent the textual order of the material in the Liber Genealogus, here overlaid on a schematic view of the Great Stemma:

One notes how the Liber begins with the upper line or Filum A (1), interrupts this with Filum B, the children of Cain (2), then continues (3) via the Matthew genealogy to Christ (4). Subsequently it examines the material (5 and 6) with chronographic information and before reverting to the Lucan genealogy (7) with which it closes.

There is one very remarkable feature of the Liber Genealogus anni 427 to which we must draw attention. Its author evidently belonged to the Donatist church, the majority but schismatic Christian church in North Africa against which Augustine of Hippo so fiercely railed, since the text criticizes Catholic persecution of Donatists. This increases the likelihood that the Great Stemma itself is a product of the Donatists, but there is as yet no certain indication for this. Future scholars would be well advised to investigate where this pointer leads.[*]Evidence for a common transmission and perhaps a common origin is presented in: Rouse, Richard, and Charles McNelis. North African Literary Activity: A Cyprian Fragment, the Stichometric Lists and a Donatist Compendium. Revue d’histoire des textes 30 (2000): 189–238.

The following annexe describes four more depth-first instances in the Liber Genealogus G. Sections that are depth-first are highlighted in bold.

The first instance is the array of Esau's five wives. The first two wives are introduced at Genesis 26: 34-35. The remaining three are listed at Genesis 36:1-5, which first lists all the wives, then follows up with the children at 15-19. But both G and F break with that order:

Scriptural order breadth-first (Septuagint) G order depth-first F order T order: Origo Humani Generis
Esau's wives: Gen 26:34: (A) Ioudin daughter of Beer. Gen 28:9: (B) Maeleth, daughter of Ismael. Gen 36:1-5: (C) Ada daughter of Ailon the Chettite, (D) Olibema daughter of Ana, (E) Basemmath daughter of Ismael; Ada bore (C.1) Eliphaz, Basemmath bore (E.1) Ragouel, Olibema bore (D.1) Ieous, (D.2) Ieglom, (D.3) Kore. Gen 11-13: Sons of Eliphaz: (C.1.1) Thaiman, (C.1.2) Omar, (C.1.3) Sophar, (C.1.4) Gothom, (C.1.5) Kenez, (C.1.6) Amalek. Sons of Ragouel: (E.1.1) Nachoth, (E.1.2) Zare, (E.1.3) Some, (E.1.4) Moze. Genesis 15:19: (C.1.5.1) Kenites, (C.1.5.2) Kenezites, (C.1.5.3) Kedmonites, (C.1.5.4) Chettites. Genesis 36:33: (E.1.2.1) Iobab son of Zara. Job 42:14: Day, Cassia, Horn of Antimony. Ipse Esau habuit uxoris quinque: (A) prima Iudin filiam Heber Cetthei; (E) secunda Basemath filiam Elom Euhei, de ipsa natus est (E.1) Raguel, qui Raguel habuit filios IIII: (E.1.1) primitivus Nachet, (E.1.2) secundus Zareth, quia Zaret genuit (E.1.2.1) Iob ..., (E.1.3) tertius Some, (E.1.4) IIII Mozae...; (B) tertia Malel filia Ismahel sterelis fuit; (C) quarta Ada filia Elom Cetthei, ex ipsa natus est (C.1) Elifas Themaneorum rex ... qui habuit filios V, (C.1.1) primitivus Theman, (C.1.2) secundus Omar, (C.1.3) III Sofar Nomadorum rex, (C.1.4) IIII Gothomi, (C.1.5) V Zenez ..., ex illis nati sunt (C.1.5.1) Cenei de Sophar et (C.1.5.2) Cenez, (C.1.5.3) Cenezei et (C.1.5.4) Cinei, ... (C.1.6) Amalech...; Nam uxor Esau quinta fuit Annae Euhei nomine (D) Elibama ex ipsa natus est (D.1) Iehul et (D.2) Iegloria et (D.3) Chorrem tertius. (268-277) Ipse Esau abuit uxores quinque: (A) prima Iudin filiam Eber Cethei; aliam nomine (E) Basemath filiam Elon Euei qui genuit (E.1) Rauel, Raguel autem genuit filios quattuor: (E.1.1) primus Naath, (E.1.2) secundus Zaraa..., (E.1.3) tertius Senna, (E.1.4) quartus Maza; secundus vero filius Rauel Zara genuit (E.1.2.1) Iob... filiarum autum ob hec sunt nomina: primas (E. Die, IIus (E. Cassia, IIIus (E. in Iob Cornus Tibie ...; tertia autum uxor Esau (B) Malaleel et dicta est filia qui fuit sterelis; (C) quarta Ada filia Elon Ethei, ex ipsa natus est (C.1) Elifaz Themaneorum rex ... qui habuit filios quinque, (C.1.1) I Theman, (C.1.2) II Gomar, (C.1.3) III Sophar (C.1.4) IIII Gotomi, (C.1.5) V Cenaz ex illo nati sunt (C.1.5.1) Cenei et (C.1.5.2) Cezei; (C.1.6) Amalech...; Nam uxor Esau quinta filia fuit Ame Cunei nomine (D) Oolibama ex ipsa nati sunt (D.1) Geul et (D.2) Eglon et (D.3) Core.. This seems to be the only text that sets out the daughters of Job.) Esau duxit uxores V: (A) prima Iudin, filia Heber Cetthei, (E) secunda Basemat, filia Helon Euuei, (B) tertia Malelelet, filia Ismael, (C) quarta Ada, filia Elon Cetthei, (D) quinta Elibema, filia Annei Euuei. De Ada, filia Elom Cetthei, genuit (C.1) Eliphas Temaneorum. De Elibema genuit filios tres: (D.1) primus Ieul, (D.2) secundus Ieclom, (D.3) tertius Correm. (D.1.1) Ieul genuit Zara. Zara genuit (D.1.1.1) Iobab, id est Iob. Eliphas Temanaeorum genuit filios V: (C.1.1) primus Themaris, (C.1.1.2) secundus Omera, (C.1.3) tertius Zophar Nomades, (C.1.4) quartus Gothom, (C.1.5) quintus Cenez, ex quo Cenezei. Item de concubina nomine Tham, quae fuit soror Lotan, filia Seir Cetthei, genuit filium (C.1.6) Amalech.

It is notable in the data above that both the G and F texts of the Liber employ depth-first traverse. The edition shows the Esau visualization which they follow. The Origo observes the breadth-first sequence, although it does not revise the wife order, but retains the distinctive order where Basemath is second instead of fifth.

The second tabulation relates to the Horrite tribes from Genesis 36:20-30, a layout also discussed in the graphical apparatus.

Scriptural order breadth-first (Septuagint) G order depth-first F order T order: Origo Humani Generis
The Horrites: Gen 36:20-30 (1) Lotan, (2) Thamna, (3) Sobal, (4) Sebegon, (5) Ana, (6) Deson, (7) Asar, (8) Rison. Sons of Lotan (1.1) Chorri, (1.2) Haiman. Sons of Sobal (3.1) Golon, (3.2) Manachath, (3.3) Gaibel, (3.4) Soph, (3.5) Onam. Sons of Sebegon (4.1) Aie, (4.2) Onan: Children of Ana (5.1) Deson, (5.2) Olibema. Sons of Deson (6.1) Hamada, (6.2) Asban, (6.3) Iethran, (6.4) Charran. Sons of Asar (7.1) Balaan, (7.2) Zoukam, (7.3) Ioykam, (7.4) Oukan. Sons of Rison (8.1) Os, (8.2) Aram. (1) Primitivus Lothan et filii eius duo: (1.2) Eman et (1.1) Chorri; (3) secundus Sobal et filii eius sex: (3.2a) Anacha, (3.2b) Cat, (3.3) Gebel, (3.4) Sophan et (3.5) Onan; (4) tertius Sebegon et filii eius duo: (4.1) Ea et (4.2) Enan...; (5) quartus Anan et filii eius duo: (5.1) Deson et (5.2) Elibathe; (6) quintus Deson et filii IIII: (6.1) Emadan, (6.2) Asban, (6.3) Thara et (6.4) Cortum; (7) sextus Asan et filii eius quattuor: (7.1) Balan, (7.2) Zuchan, (7.3) Iuscham et (7.4) Uschan; (8) septimus Rison et filii eius duo: (8.1) Oe et (8.2) Arranh. (295-302. Peculiarities here are the omission of 2 and 3.1 (both found in GS) and the division of 3.2, as well as the transposition in order of Haiman and Chorri.) Septem enim fuerunt fili Seir Orrei et nepotes XXII et ista nomina eorum: (1) primus Iotan et filii eius duo: (1.2) Eman et (1.1) Corei; (3) II Sobal et filii eius sex: (3.2a) Aban, (3.2b) Manaat, (3.3) Ebal, (3.4) Sevi et (3.5) Onam; (4) tertius Sebegon et filii eius duo: (4.1) Aia et (4.2) Onas...; (5) [omitted]; (6) V Dison et filii eius IIII: (6.1-4) [omitted]; (7) [omitted]: (7.1) Balaam, (7.2) Zucam, (7.3) Iosdam et (7.4) Iuscam, VI; (8) VII Rison et filii eius duo: (8.1) Ohe et (8.2) Aran. Hii sunt filii Seir septem et soror eorum (2) Tamna ... (Link to 26v.) (1) Primus filius Lotan et filii duo: (1.1) Eman et (1.2) Chorri; (3) secundus Subal et fili sex: (3.1) Collam, (3.2a) Macha, (3.2b) Cath, (3.3) Gabel, (3.4) Soran, et (3.5) Ionan; (4) tertius Sebegeon et filii duo, (4.1) Aea et (4.2) Oman; (5) quartus Anor et filii duo: (5.1) Deson et (5.2) Euibathe; (6) quintus Deson et fili IV: (6.1) Emadan, (6.2) Asban, (6.3) Tharram, (6.4) Corram; (7) sextus Asan et filii IV: (7.1) Balam, (7.2) Zucan, (7.3) Ioascan, (7.4) Iuscan; (8) septimus Rison et filii duo: (8.1) Oe, (8.2) Arram.

This depth-first order is fairly close to what we see in the Great Stemma, where it is natural to read each line from top to bottom. Plainly there are some errors in our recensions, particularly with the sons of Sobal, which appear in altered order. Some names have been seriously altered orthographically: for example Oe has become Hus. But it is plain that a diagrammatic summary must have served as a buffer in compiling this information for the Liber Genealogus. Doubtless the archetype of the Great Stemma in use in 427 was more accurate in these details than the recensions we now see.

The third tabulation comprises a section which is entirely omitted from all of our recensions of the Great Stemma: a listing found in the Liber Genealogus G of two grandchildren and three great-grandchildren of the Patriarch Reuben. An oddity in that list is the duplication of one of the names.

The single grandson of Reuben named by scripture is Eliab. Genesis names three sons of Eliab. These four were evidently present in the Omega version of the diagram, since the G/F recensions reproduce them depth-first.

Scriptural order breadth-first (Septuagint) G order depth-first F order T order: Origo Humani Generis
Sons of (1) Rouben: Gen 46:9: (1.1) Henoch, (1.2) Phallous, (1.3) Hasron, (1.4) Charmi. Num 26:8-9 (also 16:1): sons [sic] of Phallou: (1.2.1) Eliab. Sons of Eliab: ( Namouel, ( Dathan, ( Abiron. Ista nomina filiorum (1) Ruben: (1.1) primitivus Enoch ..., (1.2) secundus Phallus ... qui genuit (1.2.2) Enoch et (1.2.1) Eliab. Eliab genuit ( Datan ( Namuhel et ( Abyron.... (1.3) tertius Aaron ... (1.4) IIII Carmin ... (324-328. None of our mss. of the Great Stemma transmit this sub-branch. A peculiarity of this passage is the interpolation of 1.2.2 Enoch, not found in scripture.) Ista nomina filiorum (1) Ruben: (1.1) primus Enoch ..., (1.2) secundus Fallus, ipse est qui genuit (1.2.2) Enoch et (1.2.1) Eliab. Eliab genuit ( Datan ( Namuhel et ( Abiron.... (1.3) tertius filius Ruben Asor ... (1.4) Quartus Carmin ... (Link to 26v.) Ipse (1) Ruben genuit filios IV: (1.1) Enos ... (1.2) Palus ... (1.3) Astron ... (1.4) Carmin ... Palus genuit filios duos: (1.2.2) Enoch et (1.2.1) Eliab; Eliab genuit filios tres: ( Dathan, ( Namuel et ( Abyron....

An extra person, 1.2.2 Enoch, has been inserted here. He is surely a duplicate of the Enoch numbered 1.1. The duplication may come from a variant Vetus Latina text (it is notable that Phallou is said by Genesis to have sons in the plural), but this is more likely to have arisen from a misreading of the source diagram.[*]There is no critical edition of the Vetus Latina version of Numbers yet.

All five persons are entirely absent from our recensions of the Great Stemma.

A section late in the Liber Genealogus which sets out the main figures among the Levites down to Moses and his sons provides our fourth tabulation. Here are the text passages to compare:[*]Nor is there any critical edition of the Vetus Latina version of Exodus yet.

Scriptural order breadth-first (Septuagint) G order depth-first F order T order: Origo Humani Generis
Levi recapitulation: Exodus 6:16-25: (1) Leui, (1.1) Gedson (1.2) Kaath (1.3) Merari. Sons of Gedson: (1.1.1) Lobeni, (1.1.2) Semei. Sons of Kaath: (1.2.1) Amram, (1.2.2) Isaar, (1.2.3) Chebron (1.2.4) Oziel. Sons of Merari: (1.3.1) Mooli (1.3.2) Omousi. Children of Amram: ( Aaron, ( Moses, ( Mariam. Sons of Isaar: ( Kore, ( Napheg, ( Zechri. Sons of Oziel: ( Misael, ( Elisaphan, ( Setri. Sons of Aaron: ( Nadab, ( Abioud ( Eleazar, ( Ithamar. Sons of Kore: ( Asir, ( Elkana, ( Abiasath. Son of Eleazar: ( Phinees. Exodus 18:3-4: sons of Moses ( Gersam, ( Eliezer. (1) Levi genuit (1.2) Gaath. Gaath autem genuit (1.2.1) Ambram. Ambram genuit ( Aaron et ( Moysen et ( Mariam ex Iocabeth. Et Aaron sacerdos genuit ( Nadab et ( Abiud .. et ( Eleazar ... et ( Itamar. ... Eleazar genuit ( Finees. Deinde Moyses ipse genuit ( Gersam et ( Eleazarum (474-495). (See Caput 30. In the GS, only Beta includes ( Finees.) Qui Moises ex genere Levitarum erat. (1) Levi enim genuit (1.2) Gaat... Gaath genuit (1.2.1) Amram. Amram genuit ( Aaron, ( Moysen et ( Mariam... Aaron genuit ex Elisabeth ... ( Babiuth et ( Nabaioth ... et ( Eleazar ... et ( Ithamar. Nam Eleazar genuit ( Finees.... (1.2.2). Moyses ... genuit ( Gersan ... et ( Eleazarum. (This section is heavily abridged by the F editor.) (1) Leuui genuit (1.1) Cath. Cath genuit (1.1.1) Ambram. Ambram genuit filios tres, (1.1.1) Aaron, (1.1.2) Moyses, et (1.1.3) Mariam sororem eorum ... Aaron genuit filios duos, ( Nadab et ( Abiud ... Item genuit filios II, ( Eleazar et ( Ithamar. Eleazar genuit ( Finees. Moyses genuit filios II, ( Gersam et ( Eliezer.

G omits part of the biblical text, but it is plain that it varies the order to set out depth-first those names it does include. Why Misiel appears a second time in the G recension of the Liber as Masiel, an additional, fictitious son of Issar, is unclear.

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